As we move through the Information age, the need for training in and awareness of technological advancements is obvious. One only has to examine examples of winners and losers today and throughout the history of humankind to establish a judicious plan f

Enhancing Computer Competencies for Educators:
A Bottom-up Approach

(***DRAFT***)


Dr. Jim Kerr,
Faculty of Education,
Brock University,
St. Catharines, Ont.

Presented at the Learned Societies Congress (Canadian Society for the Study of Education), May 23 - June 7, 1996 in St. Catharines, Ontario.



Enhancing Computer Competencies for Educators: A Bottom-up Approach

As we move through the Information age, the need for training in and awareness of technological advancements is obvious. One only has to examine examples of winners and losers today and throughout the history of humankind to establish a judicious plan for training and education. Even in domains like athletics and war, it is apparent that those who win have the best skills and/or tools to achieve success in the assignment. For example, a successful hockey player must be able to skate, stick handle and recall and execute plays to attain success in that sport. The team that combines the greatest number of skillful players will likely win the most number of games. Similarly, in the agricultural age, those who could gather and hunt effectively were the strongest and survived. In the industrial age, the winners were those who had the most efficient equipment to produce high quality goods quickly and inexpensively. In the Information Age, the winners will be those who can best gather, process and manipulate information.

Educators are in a position that permits them to access and to process information on a continual basis. Tools that can aid them in information management are available to them and it is therefore critical that educators acquire the skills that are necessary to gather, process and manipulate information. It is also necessary that the teachers are able to pass these skilled on to their students. None of us have to be reminded how fast change is occurring and how difficult it is to predict what new technology will be introduced tomorrow. Here a few examples where people have underestimated the advance of technology.

"Everything that can be invented has been invented."
Charles H. Duell, Commissioner, U.S. Office of Patents, 1899

"Stocks have reached what looks like a permanently high plateau."
Irving Fisher, Professor of Economics, Yale University, 1929

"Airplanes are interesting toys but of no military value."
Marechal Ferdinand Foch, Professor of Strategy, Ecole Superieure de Guerre

"Computers in the future may weigh no more than 1.5 tons."
Popular Mechanics, forecasting the relentless march of science, 1949

"I think there is a world market for maybe five computers."
Thomas Watson, chairman of IBM, 1943

"I have traveled the length and breadth of this country and talked with the best people, and I can assure you that data processing is a fad that won't last out the year."
The editor in charge of business books for Prentice Hall, 1957

"But what ... is it good for?"
Engineer at the Advanced Computing Systems Division of IBM, 1968, commenting on the microchip.

"There is no reason anyone would want a computer in their home."
Ken Olson, president, chairman and founder of Digital Equipment Corp., 1977

"640K ought to be enough for anybody."
Bill Gates, 1981

For a project that was proposed to and accepted by the Ontario Ministry of Education and Training, Brock University Faculty of Education, Board of Education for the City of Hamilton, Lincoln County Board of Education, Lincoln County Roman Catholic Separate School Board, Niagara South Board of Education, Niagara Peninsula FreeNet, Welland County Roman Catholic Board of Education IBM, and the Educational Network of Ontario have formed a partnership with the Ontario Ministry of Education and Training to develop and implement a teacher training model based on effective use of technology in the classroom and across the curriculum. Specific objectives were identified and presented to the Ontario Ministry of Education and Training. These objectives were used to determine the boundaries of the project, to help with the design of training and to generate the 'big' questions for the research component. The objectives for the project are;

To establish exemplary models for teacher pre-service and in-service training using information technology delivery systems.

To use various forms of information technology to help deliver pre-service and in-service training for teachers.

To develop exemplary teacher practice in the effective use of information technology in the classroom.

To develop instructional practices which are based on the capability of technology to support and enhance student learning, assessment/evaluation techniques and outcome tracking.

To minimize geographic and economic barriers for long term teacher development programs in the areas of pre-service training, redefining the role of the associate teachers and extending through the continuous development of teachers in practice.

To strengthen the foundation for community education partnerships.

Many components must be considered and coordinated in order to achieve the anticipated high level of success for this project and to produce the deliverables that the team is now obliged to generate. These include;

A) Word Wide Web HOME PAGE for project: http://www.freenet.npiec.on.ca

The World Wide Web Home Page is the point of access for information about the project to Ontario educators and any other interested persons. Hypertext links to related projects and information sites. E-Mail addresses for questions and information about the project. Periodic updates to the Web Page to be provided as approved by Council.

B) RESEARCH REPORT

The Research Report will include the following components:

1. Teacher Skill Set: assessment of teacher skills and skill set list;

2. Student Skill Set: assessment of student skills and skill set list.

Development of:

1. Classroom models for management and methodology which uses information technology and software.

2. Anecdotal observations of students, teachers, principals through structured interviews. Pre and post-data: observations, conclusions related to the project.

3. Description of instructional methodological process(es).

C) ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATIONS

1. Establishment of an E-mail address for each teacher, principal and member of the Project Leadership Council (FreeNet and ENO).

2. Establishment of Electronic Discussion Group for the In-service Teacher Group (Niagara FreeNet) with mirrored closed conference posted on ENO).

3. World Wide Web Page: - establishment of server disk space and technical support with Web Page; - provision of periodic updates to information on the Project Home Page; - links to ENO for information dissemination to ENO's provincial clientele (reciprocal link to WWW Home Page on FreeNet server).

D) MANUALS AND DOCUMENTATION

1. Manuals in print and diskette versions as well as CD-ROM version of documentation.

Curriculum foci: Mathematics (Niagara South and Lincoln), Reading (Lincoln), Information Accessing and Processing Tools (Lincoln R.C. and Welland County R.C.).

2. Teacher Training Processes: Pre-Service and In-Service Strategies

3. Classroom Management: Use of time, space, scheduling, Technical Use of Computers, Networks and Software,

4. Software Applications: connection with learning outcomes and the Common Curriculum, tracking student learning,

5. Telecommunications Support: E-mail, discussion group, information transmission of key project data and teaching strategies through the Niagara Peninsula FreeNet and ENO

A single manual with two sections will be developed.

Section 1: Teacher Application;

Section 2: Curriculum Leaders

(implementation and support issues).

The Teacher section will focus on what needs to happen to ensure classroom implementation [a section of teacher reflections will be included]. The Curriculum Leaders section will focus on how to implement this type of change at the system level; partnership roles, structures and strategies; how to sustain and support implementation over time.

E) Library Of Resources

The Library of Resources will include:

1) Print Manuals;

2) VHS-tapes;

3) CD-ROM Version (utilizing Quick Time for Windows).

Sample materials developed for the project as well as materials developed by teachers and students working in the projects will be included. An annotated bibliography of all source materials including synopsis of software applications will be Provided.

Materials Distribution:

One complete set of materials for each of the Project Partners. One complete set of materials for MET. One complete set of materials for Ontario Curriculum Clearing House.

One of the first questions that is now being answered by the teachers who are involved with the project is "Where are you technologically?" Because of the wide range of technological skill, equipment, and readiness, it is important that all members of the project and especially the trainers know where the individual schools and staff members are before any training can be initiated - hence, a bottom-up approach. Since new equipment has been allocated for schools in this project, information must be gathered that indicates what technologies are currently being used in the schools. To assess these areas a survey has been developed (Appendix A).

Since the project does not actually go into full operation until the next school year, a pilot group of teachers were surveyed to determine if the instrument would provide useful data. Based on the responses from the preliminary results, a training agenda and curriculum can be developed.

This pilot sample was non-orthogonal. In the pilot group (n=39), females composed 82 percent of the group (Table 1). The survey asked the teachers to evaluate their ability to use several computer applications. It also asked them to identify how comfortable they were in teaching the application and in integrating it into the curriculum where applicable. Demographic information has also been gathered (Appendix A). It was determined that for the pilot group only descriptive statistics would be reported. The composition of teaching divisions is illustrated in Table 2.

Table 1

Gender for Pilot Study


Group    Male    Female                                        

Pilot       7        32                                        



Table 2

Teaching Division for Pilot Group


Division                 Percentage    N                                     

Primary/Junior            61.6        24                              
Junior/Intermediate       10.3         4                         
Intermediate/Senior       28.2        11                          



Table 3 summarizes the responses to the questions that asked for self perception of ability to use, teach and integrate computer applications in the curriculum. Teachers could choose a position on a six point scale that best described their perception of their own ability. For example, teachers were asked how well they thought they could use a word processor; the scale starts at novice (1) and proceeds to skillful (6). Therefore, from Table 3, the mean for teachers' perception of their ability to use a Word Processor was at the level of 2.5 with a standard deviation of 1.67 on the six point scale. That is, they feel that their competency is as just a bit above the lowest level of novice to use Word Processing software. Similarly the perception of their own ability to teach Word Processing is 2.6 with 1.72 as Standard Deviation. However, their perception of their ability to integrate Word Processing into the curriculum is a mean of 2.9 and 1.77 the Standard Deviation.

Table 3

Mean and Standard Deviation from 6 point Scale (1=Novice....6=Skillful) of Teacher Perception of Their Own Ability in Computer Applications (Pilot Group; n=39)


Application  Perception of Ability  Perception of Ability  Perception of Ability     
                 to Use               to Teach              to Integrate                   
                                  SD                  SD               SD
Word Pro            2.5          1.67     2.6        1.72     2.94    1.77    
Data Base           1.9          1.44     1.8        1.44     1.8     1.47    
Spreadsheet         1.5          1.22     1.5        1.26     1.5     1.22   
Communications Sft  1.2          0.86     1.1        0.42     1.2     0.63    
Internet            1.2          0.56     1.2        0.85     1.5     1.41 
E-Mail              1.3          0.69     1.2        0.94     1.6     1.55  
FAX/Modems          1.2          0.68     1.3        1.14     1.5     1.48
Special Applications1.2          0.47     1.1  	     0.23     1.3     1.06
Systems Maintenance 1.2          0.51     1.1        0.37     NA 
Site Management     1.2          0.41      NA         NA                 
Set-Up              1.2          0.71     1.1        0.31     NA
Operating Systems   1.4          0.80     1.3        0.69     NA  
CD's,Floppies,HD's  1.3          0.82     1.2        0.72     NA
Keyboarding         2.9          1.74     2.7        1.70     NA


From the above information, it appears that most teachers rate their ability to use most computer applications as inferior. Of course, this is only an opinion and this opinion may be incorrect. However, it is also possible that they have judged their skill level correctly and there is a need for enhancing their abilities. Based on the survey results, a variety of programs must be established that will allow the teachers to become proficient in the area(s) that they have identified as being inadequate. Therefore, each component of the survey is being examined and broken down into smaller segments, so that short sessions can be presented to the teachers after school in 1 to 2 hour blocks. For example, many teachers expressed a concern about their ability to manipulate communications and the Internet effectively. When the topics are divided into manageable chunks a program could look something like the following.

Communications

The Internet

What is the Internet

Who owns, administers the Net

Netiquette and the on-line milieu

Getting On-line

Types of Connections

IP addresses

Classroom Application and Evaluation

The Internet as a Communications Vehicle

The Hardware

E-mail

The basics - compose, reply, forward, bounce, delete etc.

More advanced functions - address book, file folders, .signature file, .forward file

Classroom Application and Evaluation

Searching the Net

gopher

Archie, Veronica

Educational sites

Subscribing to Mailing lists & moderated vs. unmoderated

Journals

Classroom Application and Evaluation

Sending and Retrieving Files

Anonymous FTP

Uploading and Downloading ASCII and Binary files

Classroom Application and Evaluation

The World Wide Web

Netscape

search engines

file formats - TIFF, GIF, JPEG, MPEG, QuickTime etc.

Classroom Application and Evaluation

Home Pages

HyperText Markup Language (HTML)

Formatting pages

Links

Text, audio, video integration

Classroom Application and Evaluation

A schedule will be drafted to accommodate as many teachers as possible. Notices will be sent to all who may be interested in attending and voluntary attendance would be the preferred method for delivering the program to the teachers. The other areas from the survey will have a similar design for workshop delivery.

Along with the survey results, other aspects of the teachers' technological expertise will be evaluated before and after the training sessions. Student capabilities will also be examined for growth from the start to the end of the project. Hardware and software support is essential to accommodate effective planning for growth and enhancement of the curriculum. Therefore it is important (Massachusetts Software Council, Inc, 1994) to;

A) visit all schools to determine;

1. how the technology is currently employed and the frequency of use.

2. if it is it in the classroom or only in a lab or a combination.

3. if it is incorporated into the curriculum and demonstrated by the teacher or used as an activity centre.

4. if the school access networks through modems, hubs, backbones, fibre optics, etc.

5. if there is equity within schools (i.e. classrooms) and within the school board or district.

B) Interview

1. students

2. teachers

3. administrators

4. parents.

Choose a cross section of people who have varying levels of technical expertise. Ask the interviewees to describe their successes and failures in using technology. Note their anxiety and frustrations as well as their triumphs.

Determine where they go when they need technical help and again ask about their positive and negative experiences.

C) Take a complete Inventory of your current equipment.

1. Note its age, location, and origin to determine if any group or person has ownership of the item.

2. Document all hardware, software and related items like

television sets, monitors and VCRs videotapes network equipment like connector hardware, cabling, hubs, routers, bridges, file servers, scanners, external floppies, modems, CD-ROM players, LCD display or projectors.

Items similar to the ones that the Massachusetts Software Council, Inc., (1996, May 15) included in their project "The Switched-On Classroom" should be considered for addition to the survey and are listed in Appendix B.

References

Houston, W.R., Haberman, M., & Sikula, J. (Eds.) (1990). Handbook of Research on Teacher Education. NY: MacMillan.

Massachusetts Software Council, Inc., (1996, May 15). The Switched-On Classroom [WWW site]. URL http://www.swcouncil.org/switch2.html

Morgan, N. (1994) An Introduction to Internet Resources for K-12 Educators. Part II: Question Answering, Listservs, Discussion Groups. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED372758).

Neill, S.B., & Neill, G.W. (1993). Only the best: The annual guide to highestrated educational software/multimedia from preschoolgrade 12. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Salamon, G. (1990). Interaction of media, cognition, and learning. San Francisco: JosseyBass.

White, M.A., & Righi, C. (October, 1991). Software tools for students in higher education: A national survey of use. Educational Technology, 4547.

Appendix A

Individualisation of Components

NAME:

Board:

School:

Grade/Level:

Teaching Speciality:

SEX: M / F

Own a Computer: Y / N

If Yes, What Type?:

Because of the different levels of expertise, there is a need to identify skills levels for the various programs and applications for all candidates. Therefore, the purpose of this profile is to identify skill levels and possible needs so that effective programs can be designed and implemented.


Personal Computer Competency         Use of Computer Technology in the     
                                     Curriculum                            

a) word processing -                 a) word processing -                  
Name the Program(s) that you use     Are you comfortable teaching word     
for this application:                processing to students?               
__________________________________                                         
                                     Uncomfortable   Comfortable           
Novice         Skillful              1    2    3    4    5    6            
                                                                           
1    2    3    4    5    6           Are you comfortable integrating word  
In using word processing I can       processing into the curriculum?       
7(e.g. underline, bold...)                                                 
                                     Uncomfortable   Comfortable           
                                     1    2    3    4    5    6            
                                                                           
                                                                           
                                                                           
                                                                           
                                                                           
                                                                           
                                                                           
                                                                           
                                                                           
                                                                           

b) data base management -            b) data base management -             
Name the Program(s) that you use                                           
for this application:                Are you comfortable teaching data     
_________________________            base management to students?          
                                                                           
Novice         Skillful              Uncomfortable   Comfortable           
                                     1    2    3    4    5    6            
1    2    3    4    5    6                                                 
In using data base management I can  Are you comfortable integrating data  
(e.g. define field names...)         base management into the curriculum?  
                                                                           
                                     Uncomfortable   Comfortable           
                                     1    2    3    4    5    6            
                                                                           
                                                                           
                                                                           
                                                                           
                                                                           
                                                                           
                                                                           
                                                                           
                                                                           




Personal Computer Competency         Use of Computer Technology in the     
                                     Curriculum                            

c) spreadsheets -                    c) spreadsheets -                     
Name the Program(s) that you use                                           
for this application:                Are you comfortable teaching          
_________________________            spreadsheets to students?             
                                                                           
Novice         Skillful              Uncomfortable   Comfortable           
                                     1    2    3    4    5    6            
1    2    3    4    5    6                                                 
In using spreadsheets I can (e.g.    Are you comfortable integrating       
set up formulae...)                  spreadsheets into the curriculum?     
                                                                           
                                     Uncomfortable   Comfortable           
                                     1    2    3    4    5    6            
                                                                           
                                                                           
                                                                           
                                                                           

d) communications (i.e. the program  d) communications -                   
that let's your modem and computer                                         
connect to another modem and         Are you comfortable teaching          
computer)-                           communication applications to         
Name the Program(s) that you use     students?                             
for this application:                                                      
_________________________            Uncomfortable   Comfortable           
                                     1    2    3    4    5    6            
Novice         Skillful                                                    
                                     Are you comfortable integrating       
1    2    3    4    5    6           communication applications  within    
In using communications I can (e.g.  the curriculum?                       
set up a phone book...)                                                    
                                     Uncomfortable   Comfortable           
                                     1    2    3    4    5    6            
                                                                           
                                                                           
                                                                           
                                                                           
                                                                           




Personal Computer Competency         Use of Computer Technology in the     
                                     Curriculum                            

d-1) a) Internet,                    d-1) a) Internet,                     
 Novice         Skillful             Are you comfortable teaching          
                                     Internet to students?                 
1    2    3    4    5    6                                                 
In using Internet I can (e.g.        Uncomfortable   Comfortable           
search...)                           1    2    3    4    5    6            
                                                                           
b) e-mail,                           Are you comfortable integrating       
Novice         Skillful              Internet within the curriculum?       
                                                                           
1    2    3    4    5    6           Uncomfortable   Comfortable           
In using e-mail I can (e.g.          1    2    3    4    5    6            
reply...)                                                                  
                                     b) e-mail,                            
c) use of FAX/modems -               Are you comfortable teaching e-mail   
                                     to students?                          
Novice         Skillful                                                    
                                     Uncomfortable   Comfortable           
1    2    3    4    5    6           1    2    3    4    5    6            
In using FAX/modem I can (e.g. set                                         
up com ports...)                     Are you comfortable integrating       
                                     e-mail within the curriculum?         
                                                                           
                                     Uncomfortable   Comfortable           
                                     1    2    3    4    5    6            
                                                                           
                                     c) use of FAX/modems - Are you        
                                     comfortable teaching FAX/modems to    
                                     students?                             
                                                                           
                                     Uncomfortable   Comfortable           
                                     1    2    3    4    5    6            
                                                                           
                                     Are you comfortable integrating       
                                     FAX/modems within the curriculum?     
                                                                           
                                     Uncomfortable   Comfortable           
                                     1    2    3    4    5    6            
                                                                           




Personal Computer Competency         Use of Computer Technology in the     
                                     Curriculum                            

e) Special Applications (e.g.        e) Special Applications (e.g. Corel   
design applications (Music, Art)     Draw, Linkway, CAD, ...) -            
Corel Draw, Linkway, CAD, ...) -                                           
Name the Program(s) that you use     Are you comfortable teaching          
for this application. Please use     speciality applications to students?  
more space if necessary to describe                                        
more than one:                       Uncomfortable   Comfortable           
_________________________            1    2    3    4    5    6            
                                                                           
Novice         Skillful              Are you comfortable integrating       
                                     special applications  within the      
1    2    3    4    5    6           curriculum?                           
In using Special Applications I can                                        
                                     Uncomfortable   Comfortable           
                                     1    2    3    4    5    6            
                                                                           
                                                                           
                                                                           
                                                                           
                                                                           
                                                                           
                                                                           
                                                                           
                                                                           

f) system maintenance /management-   f) system maintenance -               
(e.g. antivirus, software                                                  
installation, cleaning components,   Are you comfortable teaching system   
....)                                maintenance to students?              
Name the Program(s) that you use                                           
for this application:                Uncomfortable   Comfortable           
___________________________________  1    2    3    4    5    6            
                                                                           
Novice         Skillful                                                    
                                                                           
1    2    3    4    5    6                                                 
In using system maintenance                                                
software I can (e.g. install                                               
users...)                                                                  
                                                                           
                                                                           
                                                                           
                                                                           
                                                                           
                                                                           
                                                                           
                                                                           
                                                                           
                                                                           
                                                                           
                                                                           




Personal Computer Competency         Use of Computer Technology in the     
                                     Curriculum                            

g) site management skills -                                                
                                                                           
Novice         Skillful                                                    
                                                                           
1    2    3    4    5    6                                                 
In using site management skills I                                          
can (e.g. install and delete users,                                        
clear printer problems...)                                                 
                                                                           
                                                                           
                                                                           
                                                                           
                                                                           
                                                                           
                                                                           
                                                                           
                                                                           

h) Setting up computer &             h) Setting up computer & peripherals  
peripherals(e.g. printer, modem,     (e.g. printer, modem, mouse, ...)     
mouse, ...)                                                                
                                     Are you comfortable teaching the      
Novice         Skillful              setting up of computer systems and    
                                     peripherals to students?              
1    2    3    4    5    6                                                 
In setting up computer &             Uncomfortable   Comfortable           
peripherals I can (e.g. install      1    2    3    4    5    6            
printers, new disk drives  )                                               
                                                                           
                                                                           
                                                                           
                                                                           
                                                                           
                                                                           
                                                                           
                                                                           
                                                                           
                                                                           
                                                                           
                                                                           

i) Operating Systems (e.g. DOS,      i) Operating Systems (e.g. DOS,       
Windows, ...)                        Windows, ...)                         
                                                                           
Novice         Skillful              Are you comfortable teaching DOS and  
                                     Windows to students?                  
1    2    3    4    5    6                                                 
In using Operating Systems I can     Uncomfortable   Comfortable           
(e.g. use system commands to copy,   1    2    3    4    5    6            
delete...)                                                                 
                                                                           
                                                                           
                                                                           
                                                                           
                                                                           
                                                                           




Personal Computer Competency         Use of Computer Technology in the     
                                     Curriculum                            

j) CD ROM, Floppy and Hard Drive     j) CD ROM, Floppy and Hard Drive      
management                           management                            
                                                                           
Novice         Skillful              Are you comfortable teaching drive    
                                     management to students?               
1    2    3    4    5    6                                                 
In using CD ROM, Floppy and Hard     Uncomfortable   Comfortable           
Drive management I can (e.g.         1    2    3    4    5    6            
install drivers, clean off old                                             
files...)                                                                  
                                                                           
                                                                           
                                                                           
                                                                           
                                                                           
                                                                           
                                                                           
                                                                           

k) keyboarding -                     k) keyboarding -                      
                                                                           
Novice         Skillful              Are you comfortable teaching          
                                     keyboarding to students?              
1    2    3    4    5    6                                                 
In using keyboarding I can (e.g.     Uncomfortable   Comfortable           
type 20 words per minute...)         1    2    3    4    5    6            
                                                                           
                                                                           
                                                                           
                                                                           
                                                                           
                                                                           
                                                                           
                                                                           
                                                                           
                                                                           

l) OTHER skill                       l) OTHER skill                        
                                                                           
Novice         Skillful              Are you comfortable teaching          
                                     __________________ to students?       
1    2    3    4    5    6                                                 
In using                             Uncomfortable   Comfortable           
I can (e.g.                      )   1    2    3    4    5    6            
                                                                           
                                     Are you comfortable integrating       
                                     ____________________ into the         
                                     curriculum?                           
                                     Uncomfortable   Comfortable           
                                                                           
                                     1   2    3    4    5    6             



Appendix B

These items are from the Massachusetts Software Council, Inc., (1996, May 15) and are included in their project "The Switched-On Classroom".

URL http://www.swcouncil.org/switch2.html

1 2 3 4 5

Strongly Disagree No Agree Strongly

Disagree Opinion Agree

1) It is worthwhile for students to use computers.

1 2 3 4 5

2) It is worthwhile for teachers to use computers.

1 2 3 4 5

3) I have the ability to learn about computers.

1 2 3 4 5

4) Learning to use a computer is worth the effort

1 2 3 4 5

5) I can "touch type."

1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3 4 5

Strongly Disagree No Agree Strongly

Disagree Opinion Agree

6) The use of a computer increases my productivity.

1 2 3 4 5

7) The classroom teacher is the best person to help students learn with computers.

1 2 3 4 5

8) I am comfortable with an Apple Computer.

1 2 3 4 5

9) I am comfortable with an IBM (or compatible) computer

1 2 3 4 5

10) Computers are a helpful classroom tool.

1 2 3 4 5

11) It is part of my job to incorporate technology in my classroom.

1 2 3 4 5

12) Computers can be utilized in all subject areas.

1 2 3 4 5

13) Computers promote creative thinking.

1 2 3 4 5

14) Computers can be effective tools in cooperative learning.

1 2 3 4 5

15) At what grade level should computers be introduced?

16) At what grade level should keyboarding skills be taught?

17) If a computer lab were available to you at convenient times, would you use it for professional and/or personal growth?

Likely

Unsure

Unlikely

18) As a learner, what approach(es) would be most effective for you to acquire new computer skills? (check all that apply)

Lecture with demonstration

Instructor-directed "hands-on" experience

Self-directed "hands-on" experience

Other

19) To better utilize technology in my classroom, I would be willing to attend in-service training held... (check all that apply)

Before school During the summer

After school On Saturdays

Lunch time During the evening

During the school day with release time

20) Given adequate instruction and software, how would you like to use computers in your classroom? (check all that apply)

Drill and Practice

Enrichment

Remediation

Cooperative Group lessons

Teacher tool in whole group instruction

Keyboard and other computer skills

21) Ideally, what would you like a computer to do for you? (please be specific)

21) Ideally, how could the integration of computers into your classroom be encouraged and supported? (please be specific)

FOR TEACHERS AT SCHOOLS WITHOUT COMPUTER LABS

Approximately how many days per month is a computer in your classroom?

Typically, what percent of the day is it used?

FOR TEACHERS AT SCHOOLS WITH COMPUTER LABS

How often does your class utilize the computer lab?

Typically, how long does your class spend in the computer lab?

Comments